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# the number of surjection from a to b

It does seem though that the maximum is attained when $m/n = c+o(1)$ for some explicit constant $0 < c < 1$. Is it obvious how to get from there to the maximum of m!S(n,m)? The Number Of Surjections From A 1 N N 2 Onto B A B Is. whence by the Cauchy formula with a simple integration contour around 0 , $$\frac{\mathrm{Sur}(n,m)}{n! Thank you for the comment. { f : fin m → fin n // function.surjective f } the type of surjections from fin m to fin n. A 77 (1997), 279-303. The other terms however are still exponential in n... $\sum_{k=1}^n (k-1)! Hence $$ P_n(1)\sim \frac{n! If this is true, then the value of $m$ OK this match quite well with the formula reported by Andrey Rekalo; the $r$ there is most likely coming from the stationary phase method. "But you haven't chosen which of the 5 elements that subset of 2 map to. Since these functions are meromorphic with smallest singularity at $t=\log 2$, }{2(\log 2)^{n+1}}. There are 3 ways of choosing each of the 5 elements = [math]3^5[/math] functions. Use MathJax to format equations. }={1 \over 2\pi i} \oint \frac{(e^z-1)^m}{z^{n+1}}dz$$, $$\frac{\mathrm{Sur}(n,m)}{n! In your case, the problem is: for a given $n$ (large) maximize the integral in $m$, and give asymptotic expansions for the maximal $m$ (the first order should be $\lambda n + O(1)$ with $ 2/3\leq \lambda\leq 3/4 $ according to Michael Burge's exploration). = \frac{1}{2-e^t} $$ (To do it, one calculates $S(n,n-1)$ by exploiting the fact that every surjection must hit exactly one number twice and all the others once.) These numbers also have a simple recurrence relation: @JBL: I have no idea what the answer to the maths question is. By standard combinatorics If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. since there are 4 elements left in A. A bijection from A to B is a function which maps to every element of A, a unique element of B (i.e it is injective). To make an inhabitant, one provides a natural number and a proof that it is smaller than s m n. A ≃ B: bijection between the type A and the type B. License Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed) Show more Show less. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. 35 (1964), 1317-1321. I don't have a precise reference for your problem (given $n$ find "the most surjected" $m$); waiting for a precise one, I can say that I think the standard starting point should be as follows. So phew... it goes to 0, but not as fast as for the case $n=m$ which gives $(1/e)^m$. I just thought I'd advertise a general strategy, which arguably failed this time. site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. It would make a nice expository paper (say for the. S(n,k) = (-1)^n Li_{1-n}(2)$. Find the number of relations from A to B. $\begingroup$ Certainly. Thus, B can be recovered from its preimage f −1 (B). If I understand correctly, what I (purely accidentally) called S(n,m) is m! Injections. Many people may be interested in the asymptotics for $n=cm$ where $c$ is constant (say $c=2$). I'm assuming this is known, but a search on the web just seems to lead me to the exact formula. I'll try my best to quote free sources whenever I find them available. (3.92^m)}{(1.59)^n(n/2)^n}$$, $$\approx \frac{(3.92^m)}{e^{n}(1.59)^n(1/2)^n}=\left(\frac{2^2\times 3.92}{1.59^2\times e^2}\right)^m=0.839^m$$. Thus the probability that our function from $cm$ to $m$ is onto is Take this example, mapping a 2 element set A, to a 3 element set B. If this is true, then the m coordinate that maximizes m! such permutations, so our total number of surjections is. (Now solve the equation for \(a\) and then show that for this real number \(a\), \(g(a) = b\).) { f : fin m → fin n // function.surjective f } the type of surjections from fin m to fin n. \to (x-1)^nP_n(1/(x-1))$ leaves invariant the property of having real If we have to find the number of onto function from a set A with n number of elements to set B with m number of elements, then; S(n,m) rather than find its maximum, it is really only P_n(1) which one needs to compute. S(n,m)$. S(n,m) To look at the maximum values, define a sequence S_n = n - M_n where M_n is the m that attains maximum value for a given n - in other words, S_n is the "distance from the right edge" for the maximum value. I'm wondering if anyone can tell me about the asymptotics of $S(n,m)$. So, for the first run, every element of A gets mapped to an element in B. $$\begin{eqnarray*}{n\brace m}&\sim&\frac{n!e^{-\alpha m}}{m!\rho^{n-1}(1+e^\alpha)\sigma\sqrt{2\pi n}},\\ If I'm not wrong the asymptotics $m/n\sim 1/(2\log 2)$ is equivalent to $(m+1)^n\sim 4m^n$. Then the number of surjection from A into B is 0 votes 11.7k views asked Mar 21, 2018 in Class XII Maths by vijay Premium (539 points) A particular question I have is this: for (approximately) what value of $m$ is $S(n,m)$ maximized? Among other things, this makes $x_0$ and $t_0$ bounded, and so the f(t_0) term is also bounded and not of major importance to the asymptotics. 1999 , M. Pavaman Murthy, A survey of obstruction theory for projective modules of top rank , Tsit-Yuen Lam, Andy R. Magid (editors), Algebra, K-theory, Groups, and Education: On the Occasion of Hyman Bass's 65th Birthday , American Mathematical Society , page 168 , The saddle point method then gives, $S(n,m) = (1+o(1)) e^A m^{n-m} f(t_0) \binom{n}{m}$, $f(t_0) := \sqrt{\frac{t_0}{(1+t_0)(x_0-t_0)}}$. number of surjection is 2n−2. A proof, or proof sketch, would be even better. $\begingroup$" I thought ..., we multiply by 4! Draw an arrow diagram that represents a function that is an injection but is not a surjection. This seems quite doable (presumably from yet another contour integration and steepest descent method) but a quick search of the extant asymptotics didn't give this immediately. I have no proof of the above, but it gives you a conjecture to work with in the meantime. One first sets, and finds the positive real number $x_0$ solving the transcendental equation, (one has the asymptotics $x_0 \approx 2(1-m/n)$ when $m/n$ is close to 1, and $x_0 \approx n/m$ when $m/n$ is close to zero.) (Now solve the equation for \(a\) and then show that for this real number \(a\), \(g(a) = b\).) But we want surjective functions. In principle this is an exercise in the saddle point method, though one which does require a nontrivial amount of effort. But this undercounts it, because any permutation of those m groups defines a different surjection but gets counted the same. Suppose that one wants to define what it means for two sets to "have the same number of elements". Then, the number of surjections from A into B is? Solution: (2) The number of surjections = 2 n – 2. If f is an arbitrary surjection from N onto M, then we can think of f as partitioning N into m different groups, each group of inputs representing the same output point in M. The Stirling Numbers of the second kind count how many ways to partition an N element set into m groups. PS: Andrey, the papers you quoted initially where in pay-for journal, and led me to the wrong idea that there where no free version of that standard computation. The translation invariance of the Lagrangian gives rise to a conserved quantity; indeed, multiplying the Euler-Lagrange equation by $f'$ and integrating one gets, for some constants A, B. To create a function from A to B, for each element in A you have to choose an element in B. Il est équivalent de dire que l'ensemble image est égal à l'ensemble d'arrivée. Your answer⬇⬇⬇⬇ Given that, A={1,2,3,....,n} and B={a,b} Since, every element of domain A has two choices,i.e., a or b So, No. J. N. Darroch, Ann. Every function with a right inverse is necessarily a surjection. A reference would be great. (I know it is true that $\sum_{m=1}^n The Laurent expansion of $(e^t-1)/(2-e^t)^2$ about $t=\log 2$ begins $$ \frac{e^t-1}{(2-e^t)^2} = \frac{1}{4(t-\log 2)^2} + \frac{1}{4(t-\log 2)}+\cdots $$ $$ \qquad = \frac{1}{4(\log 2)^2\left(1-\frac{t}{\log 2}\right)^2} -\frac{1}{4(\log 2)\left(1-\frac{t}{\log 2}\right)}+\cdots, $$ whence $$ P'_n(1)= n!\left(\frac{n+1}{4(\log 2)^{n+2}}- \frac{1}{4(\log 2)^{n+1}}+\cdots\right). is n ≥ m (3.92^m)}{(1.59)^n(n/2)^n}$$ Does it go to 0? Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. Please enable Cookies and reload the page. Check Answer and Solutio 2 See answers Brainly User Brainly User A={1,2,3,.....n}B={a,b}A={1,2,3,.....n}B={a,b} A has n elements B has 2 elements. Every function with a right inverse is necessarily a surjection. For $c=2$, we find $\alpha=-1.366$ Given that A = {1, 2, 3,... n} and B = {a, b}. \rho&=&\ln(1+e^{-\alpha}),\\ Saying bijection is misleading, as one actually has to provide the inverse function. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. I should have said that my real reason for being interested in the value of m for which S(n,m) is maximized (to use the notation of this post) or m!S(n,m) is maximized (to use the more conventional notation where S(n,m) stands for a Stirling number of the second kind) is that what I care about is the rough size of the sum. The proposition that every surjective function has a right inverse is equivalent to the axiom of choice. Hence, [math]|B| \geq |A| [/math] . The following comment from Pietro Majer, dated Jun 25, '10 14:16, was meant to appear under Andrey's answer but was accidentally placed elsewhere: "The paper by Canfield and Pomerance that you quoted has an interesting expansion for $S(n,k+1)/S(n,k)$ at pag 5. In principle, one can now approximate $m! $$ \sum_{n\geq 0} P_n(1)\frac{t^n}{n!} S(n,k)= (e^r-1)^k \frac{n! Satyamrajput Satyamrajput Heya!!!! Each real number y is obtained from (or paired with) the real number x = (y − b)/a. Let us call this number $S(n,m)$. This is because (The fact that $h$ is concave will make this maximisation problem nice and elliptic, which makes it very likely that these heuristic arguments can be made rigorous.) }={1 \over 2\pi } \int_{-\pi}^{\pi}\left(\exp(re^{it})-1\right)^m e^{-int} dt\\ .$$. En mathématiques, une surjection ou application surjective est une application pour laquelle tout élément de l'ensemble d'arrivée a au moins un antécédent, c'est-à-dire est image d'au moins un élément de l'ensemble de départ. where You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. The formal definition is the following. S(n,m)$ equals $n! Assign images without repetition to the two-element subset and the four remaining individual elements of A. The smallest singularity is at $t=\log 2$. This calculation reveals more about the structure of a "typical" surjection from n elements to m elements for m free, other than that $m/n \approx 1/(2 \log 2)$; it shows that for any $0 < t < 1$, the image of the first $tn$ elements has cardinality about $f(t) n$. We know that, if A and B are two non-empty finite set containing m and n elements respectively, then the number of surjection from A to B is n C m × ! $$=\frac1{m^n}\frac{n!e^{-\alpha m}}{\rho^{n-1}(1+e^\alpha)\sigma\sqrt{2\pi n}}$$ Thus, for the maximal $m$ , the number of maps from $n$ to $m+1$ is approximatively 4 times the number of maps from $n$ to $m$ . So if I use the conventional notation, then my question becomes, how does one choose m in order to maximize m!S(n,m), where now S(n,m) is a Stirling number of the second kind? While we're on the subject, I'd like to recommend Flajolet and Sedgewick for anyone interested in such techniques: I found Terry's latest comment very interesting. Then the number of surjections from A into B is (A) nP2 (B) 2n - 2 (C) 2n - 1 (D) none of these. \frac{n}m &=& (1+e^\alpha)\ln(1+e^{-\alpha}),\\ The proposition that every surjective function has a right inverse is equivalent to the axiom of choice. number of surjection is 2n−2. If f : X → Y is surjective and B is a subset of Y, then f(f −1 (B)) = B. S(n,m) is bounded by n - ceil(n/3) - 1 and n - floor(n/4) + 1. is known that $A_n(x)$ has only real zeros, and the operation $P_n(x) The question becomes, how many different mappings, all using every element of the set A, can we come up with? Tim's function $Sur(n,m) = m! The number of surjections between the same sets is [math]k! It is a simple pole with residue $−1/2$. One then defines, (Note: $x_0$ is the stationary point of $\phi(x)$.) Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Transcript. Number of Onto Functions (Surjective functions) Formula. If we make the ansatz $m_j \approx n f(j/n)$ for some nice function $f: [0,1] \to {\bf R}^+$ with $f(0)=0$ and $0 \leq f'(t) \leq 1$ for all $t$, and use standard entropy calculations (Stirling's formula and Riemann sums, really), we obtain a contribution to $Sur(n,m)$ of the form, $\exp( n \int_0^1 \log(n f(t))\ dt + n \int_0^1 h(f'(t))\ dt + o(n) )$ (*), where $h$ is the entropy function $h(\theta) := -\theta \log \theta - (1-\theta) \log (1-\theta)$. it is routine to work out the asymptotics, though I have not bothered to S(n,m) \leq m^n$. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. Bender (Central and local limit theorems applied to asymptotics enumeration) shows. {n\brace m}=\frac1{m^n}m!\frac{n!e^{-\alpha m}}{m!\rho^{n-1}(1+e^\alpha)\sigma\sqrt{2\pi n}}$$, $$=\frac1{m^n}\frac{n!e^{-\alpha m}}{\rho^{n-1}(1+e^\alpha)\sigma\sqrt{2\pi n}}$$, $$\frac1{m^n}\frac{n!e^{-\alpha m}}{\rho^{n}}\approx\frac{n! Notice that for constant $n/m$, all of $\alpha$, $\rho$, $\sigma$ are constants. $$ Thus $P'_n(1)/P_n(1)\sim n/2(\log 2)$. It is indeed true that $P_n(x)$ has real zeros. = \frac{1}{1-x(e^t-1)}. from the analogous g.f. for Stirling numbers of second kind), $$(e^x-1)^m\,=\sum_{n\ge m}\ \mathrm{Sur}(n,m)\ \frac{x^n}{n!},$$. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share … $$ Using all the singularities $\log 2+2\pi ik, k\in\mathbb{Z}$, one obtains an asymptotic series for $P_n(1)$. = 1800. Let \(f : A \to B\) be a function from the domain \(A\) to the codomain \(B.\). To look at the maximum values, define a sequence S_n = n - M_n where M_n is the m that attains maximum value for a given n - in other words, S_n is the "distance from the right edge" for the maximum value. $$\frac1{m^n}\frac{n!e^{-\alpha m}}{\rho^{n}}\approx\frac{n! I'll write the argument in a somewhat informal "physicist" style, but I think it can be made rigorous without significant effort. This holds for any number $r>0$, and the most convenient one should be chosen according to the stationary phase method; here a change of variable followed by dominated convergence may possibly give a convergent integral, producing an asymptotics: this is e.g. But the computation for $S(n,m)$ seems to be not too complicated and probably can be adapted to deal with $m! (b) Draw an arrow diagram that represents a function that is an injection and is a surjection. The function f: R → (−π/2, π/2), given by f(x) = arctan(x) is bijective, since each real number x is paired with exactly one angle y in the interval (−π/2, π/2) so that tan(y) = x (that is, y = arctan(x)). m! S(n,m)$ to within o(1) and compute its maximum in finite time, but this seems somewhat tedious. I quit being lazy and worked out the asymptotics for $P'_n(1)$. You don't need the saddle point method to find the asymptotic rate of growth of the coefficients of $1/(2−e^t)$. I wonder if this may be proved by a direct combinatorial argument, yelding to another proof of the asymptotics. If A= (3,81) and f: A arrow B is a surjection defined by f[x] = log3 x then B = (A) [1,4] (B) (1,4] (C) (1,4) (D) [ 1, ∞). That is, how likely is a function from $2m$ to $m$ to be onto? Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. zeros. In previous sections and in Preview Activity \(\PageIndex{1}\), we have seen examples of functions for which there exist different inputs that produce the same output. }[/math] . My book says it’s: Select a two-element subset of A. So, up to a factor of n, the question is the same as that of obtaining an asymptotic for $Li_{1-n}(2)$ as $n \to -\infty$. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. \frac{n}m &=& (1+e^\alpha)\ln(1+e^{-\alpha}),\\ The number of surjections between the same sets is where denotes the Stirling number of the second kind. {n\brace m}=\frac1{m^n}m!\frac{n!e^{-\alpha m}}{m!\rho^{n-1}(1+e^\alpha)\sigma\sqrt{2\pi n}}$$ There are m! • Stat. Satyamrajput Satyamrajput Heya!!!! For large $n$ $S(n,m)$ is maximized by $m=K_n\sim n/\ln n$. $$ A surjective function is a surjection. There are m! Injection. So the maximum is not attained at $m=1$ or $m=n$. This looks like the Stirling numbers of the second kind (up to the $m!$ factor). Although his argument is not as easy as the complex variable technique and does not give the full asymptotic expansion, it is of much greater generality. This and this papers are specifically devoted to the maximal Striling numbers. and $$\sigma^2=\frac14 [1-e^\alpha\ln(1+e^{-\alpha})]=\frac14 [1-e^{-1.366}(1.59)]=.149$$ By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. }{r^n}(2\pi k B)^{-1/2}\left(1-\frac{6r^2\theta^2 +6r\theta+1}{12re^r}+O(n^{-2})\right),$$ Saying bijection is misleading, as one actually has to provide the inverse function. To avoid confusion I modify slightly your notation for the surjections from an $n$ elements set to an $m$ elements set into $\mathrm{Sur}(n,m).$ One has the generating function (coming e.g. .n to B = 1,2 ( where n > 2) is 62 then n = (A) 5 (B) 6 (C) 7 (D) 8. A surjection between A and B defines a parition of A in groups, each group being mapped to one output point in B. Math. It can be shown that this series actually converges to $P_n(1)$. Hmm, not a bad suggestion. The sum is big enough that I think I'm probably not too concerned about a factor of n, so I was prepared to estimate the sum as lying between the maximum and n times the maximum. \sigma^2&=&\left(\frac{m}n\right)^2[1-e^\alpha\ln(1+e^{-\alpha})].\end{eqnarray*}$$ Well, it's not obvious to me. \rho&=&\ln(1+e^{-\alpha}),\\ \approx (n/e)^n$ when $m=n$, and on the other hand we have the trivial upper bound $m! Ah, I didn't realise that it was so simple to read off asymptotics of a Taylor series from nearby singularities (though, in retrospect, I implicitly knew this in several contexts). It’s rather easy to count the total number of functions possible since each of the three elements in [math]A[/math] can be mapped to either of two elements in [math]B[/math]. Thus, B can be recovered from its preimage f −1 (B). Pietro, I believe this is very close to how the asymptotic formula was obtained. Check Answer and Soluti Conversely, each ordered partition of A into k non-empty subsets defines a surjection f: A B Therefore, the number of ordered partitions of A coincides with the number of surjections from A to B. If one fixes $m$ rather than lets it be free, then one has a similar description of the surjection but one needs to adjust the A parameter (it has to solve the transcendental equation $(1-e^{-A})/A = m/n$). In some special cases, however, the number of surjections → can be identified. To make an inhabitant, one provides a natural number and a proof that it is smaller than s m n. A ≃ B: bijection between the type A and the type B. Injections. So, heuristically at least, the optimal profile comes from maximising the functional, subject to the boundary condition $f(0)=0$. • Where A = {1,2,3,4,5,6} and B = {a,b,c,d,e}. how one can derive the Stirling asymptotics for n!. One has an integral representation, $S(n,m) = \frac{n!}{m!} It is a little exercise to check that there are more surjections to a set of size $n-1$ than there are to a set of size $n$. The Dirichlet boundary condition $f(0)=0$ gives $B=1$; the Neumann boundary condition $f'(1)=1/2$ gives $A=\log 2$, thus, In particular $f(1)=1/(2 \log 2)$, which matches Richard's answer that the maximum occurs when $m/n \approx 1/(2 \log 2)$. This seems to be tractable; for the moment I leave this few hints hoping they are useful, but I'm very curious to see the final answer. rev 2021.1.8.38287, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, MathOverflow works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. and o(1) goes to zero as $n \to \infty$ (uniformly in m, I believe). = \frac{e^t-1}{(2-e^t)^2}. Often (as in this case) there will not be an easy closed-form expression for the quantity you're looking for, but if you set up the problem in a specific way, you can develop recurrence relations, generating functions, asymptotics, and lots of other tools to help you calculate what you need, and this is basically just as good. and then $\rho=1.59$ The number of injective applications between A and B is equal to the partial permutation:. A has n elements B has 2 elements. Equivalently, a function is surjective if its image is equal to its codomain. My fault, I made a computation for nothing. research.att.com/~njas/sequences/index.html, algo.inria.fr/flajolet/Publications/books.html, Injective proof about sizes of conjugacy classes in S_n, Upper bound for the size of a $k$-uniform $s$-wise $t$-intersecting set system, Upper bound for size of subsets of a finite group that contains a sum-full set, maximum size of intersecting set families, Stirling numbers of the second kind with maximum part size. $$ \sum_{n\geq 0} P'_n(1)\frac{t^n}{n!} MathJax reference. To match up with the asymptotic for $Sur(n,m)$ in Richard's answer (up to an error of $\exp(o(n))$, I need to have, $\int_0^1 \log f(t) + h(f'(t))\ dt = - 1 - \log \log 2.$, And happily, this turns out to be the case (after a mildly tedious computation.). $$k! Your IP: 159.203.175.151 Would it make more sense if we said the (number of ways to chose the two that aren't distinct)(choices for that … Check Answe More likely is that it's less than any fixed multiple of $n$ but by a slowly-growing amount, don't you think? Given that Tim ultimately only wants to sum m! \frac{1}{2\pi i} \int e^{\phi(x)} \frac{dx}{x}$, where the integral is a small contour around the origin. It seems to be the case that the polynomial $P_n(x) =\sum_{m=1}^n I've added a reference concerning the maximum Stirling numbers. If f : X → Y is surjective and B is a subset of Y, then f(f −1 (B)) = B. A function on a set involves running the function on every element of the set A, each one producing some result in the set B. do this. times the Stirling number of the second kind with parameters n and m, which is conventionally denoted by S(n,m). (Of course, for surjections I assume that n is at least m and for injections that it is at most m.) It is also well-known that one can get a formula for the number of surjections using inclusion-exclusion, applied to the sets $X_1,...,X_m$, where for each $i$ the set $X_i$ is defined to be the set of functions that never take the value $i$. Let A be a set of cardinal k, and B a set of cardinal n. The number of injective applications between A and B is equal to the partial permutation: [math]\frac{n!}{(n-k)! I may write a more detailed proof on my blog in the near future. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. How many surjections are there from a set of size n? I couldn't dig the answer out from some of the sources and answers here, but here is a way that seems okay. such permutations, so our total number of surjections is. Thanks, I learned something today! The number of possible surjection from A = 1,2.3.. . Thanks for contributing an answer to MathOverflow! where $Li_s$ is the polylogarithm function. $$\approx \frac{(3.92^m)}{e^{n}(1.59)^n(1/2)^n}=\left(\frac{2^2\times 3.92}{1.59^2\times e^2}\right)^m=0.839^m$$ J. Pitman, J. Combinatorial Theory, Ser. It seems that for large $n$ the relevant asymptotic expansion is See also To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. Update. I’m confused at why … Continue reading "Find the number of surjections from A to B." $$\begin{eqnarray*}{n\brace m}&\sim&\frac{n!e^{-\alpha m}}{m!\rho^{n-1}(1+e^\alpha)\sigma\sqrt{2\pi n}},\\ $$ \sum_{n\geq 0} P_n(x) \frac{t^n}{n!} $$\Pr(\text{onto})=\frac1{m^n}m! Computer-generated tables suggest that this function is constant for 3-4 values of n before increasing by 1. Well, $\rho=1.59$ and $e^{-\alpha}=3.92$, so up to polynomial factors we have m!S(n,m)x^m$ has only real zeros. \sigma^2&=&\left(\frac{m}n\right)^2[1-e^\alpha\ln(1+e^{-\alpha})].\end{eqnarray*}$$, $$\sigma^2=\frac14 [1-e^\alpha\ln(1+e^{-\alpha})]=\frac14 [1-e^{-1.366}(1.59)]=.149$$, $$\Pr(\text{onto})=\frac1{m^n}m! Let A = 1, 2, 3, .... n] and B = a, b . Let the two sets be A and B. With a bit more effort, this type of computation should also reveal the typical distribution of the preimages of the surjection, and suggest a random process that generates something that is within o(n) edits of a random surjection. Therefore, f: A \(\rightarrow\) B is an surjective fucntion. MathOverflow is a question and answer site for professional mathematicians. Update. S(n,m)$ obeys the easily verified recurrence $Sur(n,m) = m ( Sur(n-1,m) + Sur(n-1,m-1) )$, which on expansion becomes, $Sur(n,m) = \sum m_1 ... m_n = \sum \exp( \sum_{j=1}^n \log m_j )$, where the sum is over all paths $1=m_1 \leq m_2 \leq \ldots \leq m_n = m$ in which each $m_{i+1}$ is equal to either $m_i$ or $m_i+1$; one can interpret $m_i$ as being the size of the image of the first $i$ elements of $\{1,\ldots,n\}$. Each surjection f from A to B defines an ordered partition of A into k non-empty subsets A 1,…,A k as follows: A i ={a A | f(a)=i}. Example 9 Let A = {1, 2} and B = {3, 4}. Find the number of surjections from A to B, where A={1,2,3,4}, B={a,b}. EDIT: Actually, it's clear that the maximum is going to be obtained in the range $n/e \leq m \leq n$ asymptotically, because $m! $(x-1)^nP_n(1/(x-1))=A_n(x)/x$, where $A_n(x)$ is an Eulerian polynomial. The corresponding quotient $Q := Sur(n,k+1)/Sur(n,k)$ is just $k+1$ times as big; and sould be maximized by $k$ solving Q=1.". 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Simple pole with residue $ −1/2 $. maximum Stirling numbers of the second kind ( up the. Injection and is a simple recurrence relation: @ JBL: i have no idea the... Tell me about the asymptotics of $ \phi ( x ) $ equals $ n the. \To \infty $ ( uniformly in m, i think the starting point is standard and the number of surjection from a to b `` the. ( \rightarrow\ ) B is equal to the maximum of m! (. Is m! } { 2 ( \log 2 ) 5 i 'd advertise a general,... Suppose that one wants to sum m! } { n! seems for! ) goes to zero as $ n! } { m! $ factor ), i believe.. Is indeed true that $ P_n ( 1 ) $. mathoverflow is way. Rss feed, copy and paste this URL into Your RSS reader these numbers also have a pole... To use Privacy Pass sketch, would be even better elements of a gets mapped to element., see our tips on writing great answers / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc ; user contributions under! Theorems applied to asymptotics enumeration ) shows Stirling numbers is indeed true that $ P_n 1. M=N $, and on the other hand we have the trivial upper bound m... Before increasing by 1 try my best to quote free sources whenever i find them.! 9 let a = { a, B } how many surjections are there from a to.. I made a computation for nothing groups defines a different surjection but gets counted the same amount of effort user... ”, you agree to our terms of service, Privacy policy and cookie policy t=\log 2 $. Stack! $ c=2 $ ) i 've added a reference concerning the maximum of m! } { n.... M! } { ( 2-e^t ) ^2 }, 4 } this.. Can now approximate $ m! $ factor ) n/\ln n $ the relevant asymptotic expansion $! A right inverse is necessarily a surjection $ when $ m=n $, and on the other we! With references or personal experience dig the answer to the maximum Stirling numbers right inverse is to... Quit being lazy and worked out the asymptotics for $ P'_n ( 1 \sim. \Log 2 ) ^ { n+1 } } B. one has an integral,! Is constant ( say for the first run, every element of a gets mapped to an in! 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